By Aquino De Braganca, Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein
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Additional resources for African Liberation Reader: Documents of the National Liberation Movements : The Strategy of Liberation
The system was more indirect where relatively strong traditional rulers were well established, as the Mossi chiefs were in Upper Volta and the Fulani Emirs in the northern provinces of the Cameroons (a French-administered trust territory which, like Togoland, did not belong to AOF), though in certain cases, as in Guinea's Fouta Djalon, the French deliberately broke up the old political units. It was, overall, a highly centralised system, characterised by parallel administrative structures in each territory and staffed by a remarkably mobile public service, which ruled the vast French African territories with the aid of 'chiefs'.
Events in Zambia paralleled those in Benin and Cape Verde (see below). President Kenneth Kaunda and the ruling UNIP were swept aside in remarkably 'free and fair ' presidential and parliamentary elections in October 1991. l" New democratic constitutions were under preparation in Nigeria and Uganda, though with a disappointing outcome in the first state and an uncertain outcome in the second . In Nigeria General Ibrahim Babangida, who had staged a successful countercoup in 1985, ruined any prospect of a smooth transition from military dictatorship to civilian multi-party rule by imposing unrealistic parameters on both the electoral process and the successor civilian order.
It is in this context that the relevance of the argument that economic growth does not necessarily equal economic development (often applied to Kenya and the Ivory Coast) becomes apparent, and this also explains why attempts are made to check social stratification through the adoption of equalisation measures. In Tanzania President Nyerere's government imposed severe restrictions on private enterprise and , by taxation and in other ways, clipped the privileged wings of the political leadership and state bureaucracy.