By Ralf H. Dahm, Derek M. Brewis
Fluorinated polymers have a few very worthwhile homes akin to very good chemical resistance. even if, they're frequently tough to bond and not using a pretreatment. There are exceptions and untreated poly(vinylidene fluoride), for instance, will be effectively bonded with an amine-cured epoxide. the simplest how to pretreat absolutely fluorinated polymers have been constructed within the Fifties. a lot paintings, in particular on electrochemical and plasma remedies, has considering that been conducted yet up to now those haven't proved as powerful because the early tools. partly fluorinated polymers should be handled like polyolefins, for instance, flame, and plasma remedies are very powerful. Aqueous and alcoholic options of staff I hydroxides also are very potent. Fluoropolymers gives you a mix of homes together with hot temperature resistance, first-class resistance to many chemical substances and ultraviolet (UV) radiation, hearth resistance and occasional friction. Fluoropolymers are particularly pricey and they're more often than not utilized in specialized functions equivalent to linings for chemical plant, spacecraft coatings which are immune to atomic oxygen, fire-resistant coatings for cables, and naturally, non-stick capabilities. There are greater than twenty diversified fluoropolymers which are commercially on hand. strong adhesion is needed in a few applied sciences regarding fluoropolymers together with adhesive bonding, portray, printing, metallisation (via vacuum or resolution) and composite construction. in spite of the fact that, totally fluorinated polymers reminiscent of PTFE and FEP are notoriously tough to stick to, whereas in part fluorinated polymers reminiscent of PVDF and PVF could cause difficulties reckoning on the situations. to accomplish a passable point of adhesion, it is usually essential to perform a pretreatment with either totally and partly fluorinated polymers. during this evaluation the rules of adhesion are thought of first (Section 2). innovations that experience enormously elevated our knowing of adhesion to fluoropolymers are defined in part three. situations the place strong adhesion is completed with out a pretreatment are tested in part four. besides the fact that, as pretreatments tend to be had to get the necessary point of adhesion, this assessment is especially involved in the wide range of tools on hand to pretreat fluoropolymers (Section 5). A common dialogue and conclusions persist with. This Rapra evaluate file includes a concise, specialist evaluation, supported by means of an intensive bibliography compiled from the Polymer Library relating to adhesion to fluoropolymers. This bibliography presents additional info in this topical box. This evaluate should be of curiosity either to those that already use fluoropolymers and those that are contemplating utilizing them.
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379-80, 28cm, 012 HIERARCHICALLY STRUCTURED SELF- 36 Item 28 Patent Number: EP 1270697 A2 20030102 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT CHIP BONDING SHEET AND INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PACKAGE Ohashi K; Yoshida K; Yokomizo O Japan Gore-Tex Inc. © Copyright 2006 Rapra Technology References and Abstracts The IC chip bonding sheet has adhesive resin layers formed on both faces of a porous polytetrafluoroethylene layer comprising a porous polytetrafluoroethylene sheet. The porous polytetrafluoroethylene layer retains porous voids and the adhesive resin layers comprise a bromine-free flame retardant resin composition.
However, if ion etching was followed by exposure to an oxygen glow discharge (GLD) advancing water contact angles in excess of 140 ° were observed in some cases. The increased hydrophobicity was attributed to changes in topography. Ion etching caused extensive roughening but the resulting surfaces contained high levels of oxygen (Table 16). The GLD treatment removed much of this O-functionality, while retaining much of the topographical change, and hence the hydrophobicity was greater than with ion etching alone.
There are many methods that could be used to enhance such polymers but the two usually used commercially are sodium in liquid ammonia and sodium naphthalenide in an aprotic solvent. These two methods are both very effective but are undesirable from the environmental viewpoint. The use of sodium and liquid ammonia is clearly hazardous during the treatment stage. Sodium naphthalenide solutions are less hazardous and relatively stable proprietary products may be purchased. However, these are expensive, and when the treated polymer is washed with water naphthalene is liberated.