A reference grammar of Korean by Samuel Elmo Martin

By Samuel Elmo Martin

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There are also some which are less predictable, but also widespread, of a similar sort. Nine types of these SEQUENCE VARIANTS are described below. 3). 1. Precision variants. e 'can't eat'; chinkwu - chingkwu 'friend', pankawe - pangkawe 'is happy', sonq-kalak - song-kkalak 'finger'. In faster speech, m is replaced by ng before k: camqkan - cangkkan 'a while', nemkye - nengkye 'across, over', imkum - ingkum 'king', cikum kkaci - cikung kkaci 'up to now'. Sometimes, in fast or sloppy speech, pk(k) is replaced by kk: komapkeyss.

Before Ii ey ay wi wey way oy/) the palatal affricate. After a vowel and before a back vowel, the voiced version of the nonpalatalized affricate is sometimes weakened to just [z]. hwa­ cem 'department store'; ui(d)za = uyca 'chair', mo(d)za = moca 'hat'. Despite the description implied in several treatises, it is quite rare to hear [z] in any modern dialect as an allophone of Isl; when [z] or [dz] is heard, it almost always represents lcl. But there is evidence for a [z] allophone of Isl in earlier Hamkyeng speech, as heard by Putsillo, Matveev, and Tayshin.

Of many English speakers. But Lukoff 1954:40-2 seems to feel that /I I / is phonetically short like /n / rather than long like /nn / [n:n], and some native linguists have expressed a similar feeling. ···], for /1··· / is realized as the flap allophone [r]. Yet at the same time Lukoff (1954:9-10) describes the articulation of /1/ after /1/ as a "pre-flapped [l]" which he writes as [d i]. Often the Korean I (and even more often the I I) is somewhat palatalized, especially before i or y; that is, the center of the tongue is humped at the same time that the tip of the tongue is making the primary articulation.

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