By Sue A. Kawashima
For English-speaking scholars of eastern, debris are maybe the main tough element of the language to benefit. it'd be no exaggeration to assert that, for many humans, they could by no means be thoroughly mastered. therefore, the examine of debris is a life-time project, and scholars want a lifelong better half to assist them alongside the way in which. That better half is A Dictionary of jap Particles. masking over a hundred debris in alphabetical order, the dictionary explains the meanings of every (most have a couple of) and offers pattern sentences for every which means. Illustrations are supplied the place precious for rationalization. There also are workouts behind the ebook in the event you desire to attempt their wisdom of particle utilization. Appendices and endpaper charts are supplied for simple entry. A Dictionary of jap Particles is a necessary reference paintings, intended for use through the years as scholars proceed to confront confusing debris.
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Additional info for A Dictionary of Japanese Particles
There are two major lexical classes, nouns and verbs. As in most Polynesian languages, there is little bound morphology on either verbs or nouns. Reduplication is highly frequent, with a variety of functions, including forming plurals of some nouns and indicating plural of S or 0 with verbs. The socalled -Cia-suffixes, which have been described in various ways for different Polynesian languages, function in Vaeakau-Taumako as transitive suffixes added to a stem which may or may not have an independent use as an intransitive verb.
Kaoa [ka'oa, 'kaoa] 'grass', khainga [kha'inga, 'khainga] 'party', paua [pa'ua, 'paua] 'giant clam shell' (PPN *paasua). In most cases this is an optional variant. There are a few cases of dialectal differences: 'laulu (VAE) - la'ilu (TAU) 'hair'. If vowel sequences such as those exemplified above were phonologically diphthongs, processes such as reduplication should be expected to treat them as a single syllable, in other words the fully reduplicated forms of words like holau and khainga should be *holauholau and *khaingakhainga.
Monosyllabic lexical roots (nouns and verbs) all have long vowels; in other words the minimal form of a lexical word is V:. g. a 'what'. i5 'rations. food for a journey'. PL'. Granunatical words. on the other hand. may consist of a single short vowel. g. a 'personal marker'. e 'agentive preposition'. i 'locative-directional-ablative preposition'. 4 Kalama/dna is NUP. In VAE and TAU klomakina is the usual colloquial form. Vowels 23 All members of the two open lexical classes, nouns and verbs, have one main stress, which falls on the final syllable of the word if this syllable contains a long vowel; otherwise stress is on the penultimate syllable.